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IP Chart - Basics

 

  

The key to understanding IP is knowing what a routing table looks like.

IP addresses are 32 bit numbers and are represented in a dotted decimal notation:

XXX.XXX.XXX.XXX

Each decimal number represents eight bits of binary data, and therefore can have a decimal value between 0 and 255:

0.0.0.0    to    255.255.255.255

It is the value of the first number of the IP address that determines the class to which a given IP address belongs.  IP addresses most commonly are class A, B, or C.

Class Range Allocation
A 1-126 N.H.H.H
(A) 127 (loopback)
B 128-191 N.N.H.H
C 192-223 N.N.N.H
D 224-239 (multi-cast)
E 240-248 reserved
  249-255  

N=Network  H=Host

Notes:

127.0.0.0 is a class A network, but is reserved for use as a loopback address (typically 127.0.0.1).

The 0.0.0.0 network is reserved for use as the default route.

Class D addresses are used by groups of hosts or routers that share common characteristics.

Class D addresses are used for multi-cast applications.

Class E addresses exist (240-248) but are reserved for future use.


                            
RFC 790 - Assigned numbers

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